夏雨果, 陈蔚涛, 李新辉, 朱书礼, 李捷, 李跃飞. 广东省内陆江河鱼类多样性[J]. 南方水产科学. DOI: 10.12131/20230251
引用本文: 夏雨果, 陈蔚涛, 李新辉, 朱书礼, 李捷, 李跃飞. 广东省内陆江河鱼类多样性[J]. 南方水产科学. DOI: 10.12131/20230251
XIA Yuguo, CHEN Weitao, LI Xinhui, ZHU Shuli, LI Jie, LI Yuefei. Fish diversity in inland rivers of Guangdong Province[J]. South China Fisheries Science. DOI: 10.12131/20230251
Citation: XIA Yuguo, CHEN Weitao, LI Xinhui, ZHU Shuli, LI Jie, LI Yuefei. Fish diversity in inland rivers of Guangdong Province[J]. South China Fisheries Science. DOI: 10.12131/20230251

广东省内陆江河鱼类多样性

Fish diversity in inland rivers of Guangdong Province

  • 摘要: 广东省地属热带和亚热带季风气候区,是我国鱼类资源丰富且社会经济最为活跃的地区之一,其鱼类生物多样性受到较大威胁。在近十几年调查的基础上,系统整理了广东省珠江水系、粤东水系和粤西水系14条河流 (区域) 的鱼类物种名录,并对其种类组成和分布进行了分析,利用聚类和排序方法探究了广东省内陆江河鱼类的空间分布格局。结果表明,广东省共记录有内陆江河鱼类351种,隶属于21目74科207属。其中,广东省特有鱼类13种,国家重点保护鱼类8种,河海洄游鱼类10种,淡水珍稀濒危鱼类28种,在珠江、粤东和粤西水系均有分布的广布种有52种。根据聚类和排序分析结果,可将14条河流 (区域) 分为5组:珠江水系和韩江鱼类种类较为相似分为一组;粤西水系和粤东的螺河、赤石河、黄江鱼类种类较为相似分为一组;粤东的黄冈河、榕江和练江各单独分为一组。相似性分析结果显示,各组之间鱼类种类组成差异显著 (r=0.937, P=0.001)。广东省江河鱼类中,2010年之后出现的种类有223种 (含外来种群),约有39%的历史土著种类未出现,土著鱼类资源明显衰退。鱼类栖息地生境破坏、外来种群入侵等是鱼类多样性下降的主要威胁因素。未来需要加强保护区的建设和管理,防控外来种群的扩张,最重要的是从保护鱼类栖息地的角度进行水资源的开发与管理。

     

    Abstract: Guangdong Province is in the tropical and subtropical monsoon climate zone, being one of the most socio-economically active regions in China, rich in fish resources, but its fish diversity is under severe threat. Based on the surveys in recent decades, we systematically compiled the fish species list of 14 rivers (regions) in Guangdong Province, including the Pearl River system, the Eastern Guangdong river system, and the Western Guangdong river system. Then we analyzed the species composition and distribution, and investigated the spatial distribution pattern of fishes in Guangdong Province by using the clustering and nonmetric muti-dimensional scaling methods. The results show that a total of 353 fish species were recorded in Guangdong Province, belonging to 204 genera in 21 orders and 72 families. Among them, there are 13 species of endemic fish, 8 species of national key protected fish, 7 species of migratory fish, 28 species of freshwater rare and endangered fish, and 52 species of widespread fish distributed in the Pearl River system, the the Eastern Guangdong river system, and the Western Guangdong river system. According to the results of clustering and ranking analysis, the 14 rivers (Regions) can be divided into five groups: the Pearl River system and Hanjiang River were divided into one group with relatively similar fish species; the Western Guangdong river system and the Luhe River, Chishi River and Huangjiang River in Eastern Guangdong were divided into one group with relatively similar fish species; the Huanggang River, Rongjiang River and Lianjiang River in Eastern Guangdong were each divided into a separate group. The results of the similarity analysis show that the differences in the fish compositions among the groups were significant (r=0.937, P=0.001). Among the riverine fish species in Guangdong Province, 223 species, including alien populations, appeared after 2010, but about 39% of the historical indigenous species did not appear, with an obvious decline in indigenous fish resources. Fish habitat destruction and invasion of alien populations are the main threatening factors for the decline of fish diversity. In the future, it is urgent to strengthen the construction and management of protected areas, to prevent and control the expansion of alien populations, and last but not least, to utilize and manage water resources from the perspective of protecting fish habitats.

     

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