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饲料中添加南极磷虾粉对凡纳滨对虾生长、体组分及体色的影响

李汶恒 王海涛 单洪伟 高畅 李吉清

李汶恒, 王海涛, 单洪伟, 高畅, 李吉清. 饲料中添加南极磷虾粉对凡纳滨对虾生长、体组分及体色的影响[J]. 南方水产科学. doi: 10.12131/20220074
引用本文: 李汶恒, 王海涛, 单洪伟, 高畅, 李吉清. 饲料中添加南极磷虾粉对凡纳滨对虾生长、体组分及体色的影响[J]. 南方水产科学. doi: 10.12131/20220074
LI Wenheng, WANG Haitao, SHAN Hongwei, GAO Chang, LI Jiqing. Effects of dietary supplementation with powder of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) on growth performance, body composition and color of Litopenaeus vannamei[J]. South China Fisheries Science. doi: 10.12131/20220074
Citation: LI Wenheng, WANG Haitao, SHAN Hongwei, GAO Chang, LI Jiqing. Effects of dietary supplementation with powder of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) on growth performance, body composition and color of Litopenaeus vannamei[J]. South China Fisheries Science. doi: 10.12131/20220074

饲料中添加南极磷虾粉对凡纳滨对虾生长、体组分及体色的影响

doi: 10.12131/20220074
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目 (2020YFD0900202);文登产学研特聘专家项目 (201902)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李汶恒 (1998—),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为水产养殖生态学。E-mail: liwenheng@stu.ouc.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    单洪伟 (1984—),男,副教授,博士,从事甲壳动物健康养殖研究。E-mail: shanhongwei@ouc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S 963.73+5

Effects of dietary supplementation with powder of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) on growth performance, body composition and color of Litopenaeus vannamei

  • 摘要: 为探讨南极磷虾粉在对虾养殖中的应用效果,在对虾全价配合饲料中分别添加5% (S5组)、10% (S10组)、15% (S15组) 和20% (S20组) 的南极磷虾粉,配制成4种实验饲料,以全价配合饲料为对照 (S0组),饲养体质量为 (7.27±0.88) g的凡纳滨对虾 (Litopenaeus vannamei) 35d,研究了其对凡纳滨对虾生长、体组分及体色的影响。发现饲料中添加南极磷虾粉,1) 可显著提高对虾成活率 (P<0.05),添加比例为15%时,终末体质量 (FBW)、增重率 (WGR) 和特定生长率 (SGR) 显著高于S0组 (P<0.05);2) 逐渐提高粗脂肪含量,且S10组、S15组和S20组显著高于S0组 (P<0.05),而头胸甲亮度值 (L*) 及身体处黄色值 (b*) 逐渐降低,均显著低于S0组 (P<0.05);3) 显著提高肝胰腺和甲壳中虾青素的含量,且与体色相关的LVPBP75基因的表达水平与南极磷虾粉添加比例呈正相关。研究结果初步表明,饲料中添加南极磷虾粉能够促进对虾生长,提高体内虾青素含量和肝胰腺中LVPBP75的表达水平,改善对虾体色;其中,添加15%的南极磷虾粉效果更加明显。
  • 图  1  各组对虾肝胰腺中虾青素含量的变化

    Figure  1.  Variation of astaxanthin content in hepatopancreas of shrimp in each group

    图  2  各组对虾甲壳虾青素含量的变化

    Figure  2.  Variation of astaxanthin content in carapace of shrimp in each group

    图  3  各组对虾肝胰腺中LVPBP75表达水平

    Figure  3.  Expression level of LVPBP75 in hepatopancreas of shrimp in each group

    图  4  实验结束时各组对虾生虾 (a) 和熟虾 (b) 的体色

    Figure  4.  Color of raw shrimp (a) and cooked shrimp (b) in each group at end of experiment

    表  1  实验饲料营养水平分析 (风干质量)

    Table  1.   Nutritional composition of experimental diets (air-dry mass)

    项目
    Item
    南极磷虾粉质量分数
    Content of Antarctic krill powder/%
    05101520
    粗蛋白质 Crude protein/%44.6844.1745.3245.3645.37
    粗脂肪 Crude fat/%8.548.558.779.149.78
    灰分 Ash/%12.2511.8612.0311.7812.00
    水分 Moisture/%5.438.807.9510.099.09
    虾青素 Astaxanthin/(mg·kg−1)1.191.682.052.662.96
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  该研究中使用的引物序列

    Table  2.   Real-time PCR primer sequences used in present study

    引物
    Primer
    序列
    Sequence (5'—3')
    LVPBP75-FTGGGCATCCTTTGTCGGCAATG
    LVPBP75-RCATAGAGGGGAGGGAGCACCAC
    β-ACTIN-FACCACCGCTGCTTCCTCCTC
    β-ACTIN-RCGGATGTCCACGTCGCACTTC
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  各组对虾生长性能和存活率

    Table  3.   Growth performance and survival rate of shrimp in each group

    项目    
    Item    
    组别 group
    S0S5S10S15S20
    终末体质量 Final body mass/g22.14±1.78b23.62±3.02ab25.10±3.76ab26.35±2.56a25.09±3.18ab
    相对增重率 Weight gain rate/%204.41±24.53b224.78±41.57ab245.16±51.72ab262.35±35.15a245.03±43.78ab
    特定生长率 Specific growth rate/(%·d−1)3.17±0.24b3.35±0.36ab3.51±0.41ab3.67±0.27a3.52±0.35ab
    存活率 Survival rate/%46.67±0.00b66.67±0.00ab77.78±16.78a66.67±0.00ab57.78±10.18ab
    注:同行数据不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P<0.05)。下表同 Note: Values with different small letterS within the same row indicate significant difference (P<0.05). The same case in the following tables.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各组对虾体组分

    Table  4.   Body composition of shrimp in each group%

    项目
    Item
    组别 Group
    S0S5S10S15S20
    粗蛋白质 Crude protein 74.49±0.81a 73.03±1.16a 73.51±1.30a 75.53±1.16a 74.66±1.63a
    粗脂肪 Crude fat 10.42±0.73de 11.57±0.50cd 12.34±0.75bc 13.18±0.21ab 14.46±0.32a
    粗灰分 Ash 11.10±0.07 10.50±0.17 11.53±0.38 11.16±0.18 10.39±0.99
    水分 Moisture 74.16±0.10 75.69±2.02 73.44±0.69 74.53±1.69 74.63±0.92
    注:除水分数据是湿质量测量外,其他成分均为干质量测量 Note: The crude protein, crude fat and ash are dry mass measurement, while the moisture is wet mass measurement.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  各组对虾甲壳亮度值、红色值和黄色值

    Table  5.   L*, a*and b*of shrimp exoskeleton in each group

    头胸甲 Cephalothorax腹部甲壳 Carapace
    亮度值 L*红色值 a*黄色值 b*亮度值 L*红色值 a*黄色值 b*
    生虾 Raw shrimp
     S0 44.69±2.07a 0.16±0.88 5.57±0.28a 36.55±1.83a 0.20±1.01 5.52±0.63a
     S5 39.43±2.61b 0.53±1.53 5.18±0.63ab 33.28±1.71bc 0.70±0.79 4.65±0.71a
     S10 34.53±1.31c −0.17±1.36 4.24±0.78bc 34.19±1.77b −0.11±0.28 2.09±0.66b
     S15 32.14±1.12d 0.70±1.05 4.53±0.74ab 31.46±1.96c −0.89±0.70 −1.26±1.25c
     S20 31.80±1.06d −0.38±0.62 3.54±0.56c 32.71±0.92bc 0.27±0.47 1.31±0.38b
    熟虾 Cooked shrimp
    S0 43.62±0.98d 9.39±0.60b 11.24±1.16c 76.45±0.22a 9.94±0.35bc 16.06±0.78b
     S5 61.19±0.82b 9.23±0.33b 18.85±0.33b 71.48±0.28b 9.45±0.35c 13.22±0.29c
     S10 66.63±2.31a 9.28±2.13b 24.25±0.23a 69.08±0.48c 11.21±0.36b 16.42±1.00ab
     S15 56.43±2.64c 10.36±0.16ab 18.71±1.11b 65.25±0.20d 18.44±1.30a 15.95±0.24b
     S20 61.06±0.66b 13.69±1.65a 23.13±0.80a 62.88±0.73e 20.36±0.89a 17.71±0.35a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-21
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-31
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-30

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