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西沙群岛冷泉区中层鱼类群落结构初探

田翰 江艳娥 张俊 陈作志 徐姗楠 朱江峰 于文明

田翰, 江艳娥, 张俊, 陈作志, 徐姗楠, 朱江峰, 于文明. 西沙群岛冷泉区中层鱼类群落结构初探[J]. 南方水产科学. doi: 10.12131/20210370
引用本文: 田翰, 江艳娥, 张俊, 陈作志, 徐姗楠, 朱江峰, 于文明. 西沙群岛冷泉区中层鱼类群落结构初探[J]. 南方水产科学. doi: 10.12131/20210370
TIAN Han, JIANG Yan'e, ZHANG Jun, CHEN Zuozhi, XU Shannan, ZHU Jiangfeng, YU Wenming. A preliminary study on community structure of mesopelagic fish in cold seep of Xisha Islands[J]. South China Fisheries Science. doi: 10.12131/20210370
Citation: TIAN Han, JIANG Yan'e, ZHANG Jun, CHEN Zuozhi, XU Shannan, ZHU Jiangfeng, YU Wenming. A preliminary study on community structure of mesopelagic fish in cold seep of Xisha Islands[J]. South China Fisheries Science. doi: 10.12131/20210370

西沙群岛冷泉区中层鱼类群落结构初探

doi: 10.12131/20210370
基金项目: 广东省基础与应用基础研究重大项目(2019B030302004-05);农业农村部财政专项 (NFZX2021);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室 (广州) 人才团队引进重大专项 (GML2019ZD0605);中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资助(2020TD05);中国水产科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资助 (2021SD01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    田翰:田 翰 (1997—),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为渔业资源评估。E-mail: hantian_1997@163.com

    通讯作者:

    陈作志 (1978—),男,研究员,博士,从事渔业资源和海洋生态研究。E-mail: zzchen2000@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S 932.4

A preliminary study on community structure of mesopelagic fish in cold seep of Xisha Islands

  • 摘要: 为了解冷泉生态系统鱼类种类组成,以及为相关区域的生物多样性保护和监测工作提供科学依据。采用中层拖网对西沙群岛冷泉海域内外区域中层鱼类资源进行调查,共采集鱼类12目31科62属106种,以灯笼鱼目和巨口鱼目为最主要类群。其中,冷泉海域11目30科54属84种;冷泉外海域6目13科32属60种。冷泉海域内外区域共有鱼类38种,共有优势种为斯氏蝰鱼 (Chauliodus sloani)、尾明角灯鱼 (Ceratoscopelus warmingii)、喀氏眶灯鱼 (Diaphus garmani)。Jaccard种类相似性指数 (I) 表明,冷泉海域内外区域中层鱼类种类相似度为中等不相似 (I=35.8%)。鱼类群落的平均分类差异指数 (Δ+) 冷泉海域显著大于冷泉外海域 (P<0.01),但鱼类群落的分类差异变异指数 (Λ+) 冷泉海域小于冷泉外海域 (P<0.01)。从水层分布来看,冷泉海域内外中层鱼类群落物种组成存在明显差异 (P<0.01);表层水域中层鱼类多样性冷泉区低于冷泉外部,而深层水域则相反。冷泉内外不同站位的群落组成之间在水层及时间上存在相关性,冷泉内部的白天深层和夜间深层相似性较高;冷泉内部夜间表层和冷泉外部夜间表层相似性较高。研究结果初步显示,冷泉内外中层鱼类群落组成差异显著,冷泉区中层鱼类种类更多,且深层水域的种类多样性较高;区分冷泉内外海域中层鱼类群落的关键种群为长鳍虹灯鱼 (Bolinichthys longipes) 和串灯鱼 (Vinciguerria nimbara) 等8种,累计贡献度达到56.06%。
  • 图  1  南海西部西沙海域中层鱼类采样站位图

    Figure  1.  Sampling station for mesopelagic fish in Xisha Islands of western South China Sea

    图  2  南海西沙冷泉内外区域站位中层鱼类各目种类数占比

    Figure  2.  Percentage of number of mesopelagic fish species by Order in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    图  3  南海西沙冷泉内外区域中层鱼类站位聚类分析

    Figure  3.  CLUSTER results of mesopelagic fish species in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    图  4  南海西沙冷泉内外区域中层鱼类PCoA主坐标排序分析

    Figure  4.  PCoA (principal co-ordinates analysis) ordination of merger of mesopelagic fish in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    表  1  南海西沙冷泉内外区域中层鱼类拖网采样站位信息

    Table  1.   Information of sampling stations for mesopelagic trawl in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    站位编号
    Station No.
    采样水层
    Sampling water layer
    站位水深
    Station depth/m
    平均拖速
    Mean towing speed/(m·s–1)
    放网时段
    Trawl time
    拖网时长
    Trawl duration/h
    A1 深层 Deep layer 400~600 2.06 白天 Daytime 1
    A2 深层 Deep layer 400~600 1.90 夜间 Nighttime 1
    A3 表层 Surface layer 75 2.26 夜间 Nighttime 1
    B1 深层 Deep layer 400~600 1.85 白天 Daytime 1
    B2 深层 Deep layer 400~600 1.90 夜间 Nighttime 1
    B3 表层 Surface layer 75 1.90 夜间 Nighttime 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  南海西沙冷泉内外区域站位种类组成差异

    Table  2.   Difference of species composition in each station in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    站位 StationA1A2A3B1B2B3
    A1 31 17 10
    A2 39.24% 16 16
    A3 29.31% 22.54% 15
    B1 18.18% 15 6
    B2 30.95% 30.0% 16
    B3 40.54% 16.67% 27.12%
    种类数
    Species number
    49 61 26 16 49 26
    注:对角线右上方为站位间共有种类数,对角线左下方为Jaccard相似性系数。 Note: The number of shared species between stations is above the diagonal line, and the Jaccard similarity coefficient is below the diagonal line.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  南海西沙冷泉内外区域不同站位鱼类平均分类多样性指数及分类差异变异指数

    Table  3.   Average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+) in each station in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    站位
    Station
    平均分类差异指数
    Δ+
    分类差异变异指数
    Λ+
    A170.24275.45
    A270.74334.20
    A370.16324.31
    B163.17453.31
    B264.20454.80
    B355.82531.40
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  南海西沙冷泉内外区域各站位中层鱼类优势种

    Table  4.   Dominant species of mesopelagic fish in each station in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    站位
    Station
    优势种
    Dominant species
    相对重要性
    指数
    IRI
    优势度
    百分比
    IRI%
    A1 斯氏蝰鱼 Chauliodus sloani 2 957.81 14.79
    蛇口异星杉鱼 Heterophotus ophistoma 2 870.73 14.35
    长钻光鱼 Gonostoma elongatus 1 335.23 6.68
    天纽珍灯鱼 Lampanyctus tenuiformis 1 320.00 6.60
    褶胸鱼 Sternoptyx diaphana 1 102.62 5.51
    A2 斯氏蝰鱼 Chauliodus sloani 2 928.60 14.64
    天纽珍灯鱼 Lampanyctus tenuiformis 1 713.85 8.57
    A3 尾明角灯鱼 Ceratoscopelus warmingii 5 206.78 26.03
    喀氏眶灯鱼 Diaphus garmani 4 072.03 20.36
    前鳍盗目鱼 Lestidiops jayakari 2 427.66 12.14
    马来眶灯鱼 Diaphus malayanus 1 720.47 8.60
    瓦氏眶灯鱼 Diaphus watasei 1 656.03 8.28
    B1 长银斧鱼 Argyropelecus affinis 5 311.29 26.56
    西钻光鱼 Gonostoma atlanticum 3 272.97 16.36
    灿烂眶灯鱼 Diaphus fulgens 2 186.23 10.93
    银斧鱼 Argyropelecus hemigymnus 1 893.63 9.47
    串灯鱼 Vinciguerria nimbara 1 611.99 8.06
    黑柔骨鱼 Malacosteus niger 1 578.59 7.89
    B2 斯氏蝰鱼 Chauliodus sloani 3 123.79 15.62
    近壮灯鱼 Hygophum proximum 1 439.34 7.20
    西钻光鱼 Gonostoma atlanticum 1 399.58 7.00
    B3 尾明角灯鱼 Ceratoscopelus warmingii 4 494.93 22.47
    长鳍虹灯鱼 Bolinichthys longipes 3 239.39 16.20
    喀氏眶灯鱼 Diaphus garmani 2 692.64 13.46
    串灯鱼 Vinciguerria nimbara 2 131.97 10.66
    条带眶灯鱼 Diaphus brachycephalus 1 785.02 8.93
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  南海西沙冷泉内外区域中层鱼类多样性指数

    Table  5.   Diversity index of mesopelagic fish in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    站位
    Station
    Shannon-Wiener
    多样性指数
    H'
    Pielou均匀度
    指数
    J'
    Margalef丰富度
    指数
    D
    A13.470.896.45
    A23.540.867.27
    A32.040.632.30
    B12.340.842.67
    B23.320.854.37
    B32.230.682.58
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  南海西沙冷泉内外区域中层鱼类百分比相似性分析

    Table  6.   Results of similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) of mesopelagic fish in sea area inside and outside cold seep in Xisha Islands of South China Sea

    物种
    Species
    平均不相似度
    Average dissimilarity/%
    累计贡献度
    Cumulative contribution/%
    数量百分比 Quantity percentage/%
    冷泉内
    Inside cold seep
    冷泉外
    Outside cold seep
    长鳍虹灯鱼 Bolinichthys longipes 5.31 10.40 0.64 8.87
    串灯鱼 Vinciguerria nimbara 5.12 20.42 0.17 8.28
    喀氏眶灯鱼 Diaphus garmani 3.67 27.61 27.46 10.52
    近壮灯鱼 Hygophum proximum 3.48 34.42 0.60 5.91
    条带眶灯鱼 Diaphus brachycephalus 3.18 40.63 0.04 5.10
    西钻光鱼 Gonostoma atlanticum 3.10 46.69 0.56 5.28
    马来眶灯鱼 Diaphus malayanus 2.55 51.69 12.81 3.57
    多鳞孔头鲷 Melamphaes polylepis 2.23 56.06 0.68 3.98
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-10
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-30

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