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国内外海水观赏鱼产业与研究现状

苏志星 岳彦峰 蒋科技 彭士明 施兆鸿

引用本文:
Citation:

国内外海水观赏鱼产业与研究现状

    作者简介: 苏志星 (1991—),男,硕士,助理研究员,从事海水观赏鱼类繁育和养殖生态学研究。E-mail: zxsu1991@hotmail.com;
    通讯作者: 岳彦峰, 92431429@qq.com
  • 中图分类号: S 937.0

Research status of marine ornamental fish industry at home and abroad

    Corresponding author: Yanfeng YUE, 92431429@qq.com ;
  • CLC number: S 937.0

  • 摘要: 海水观赏鱼贸易是海洋水族馆贸易行业的重要部分,是一项价值十几亿美元的产业,每年交易量达数百万尾,且需求量还在逐年上升,但由于严重依赖野生资源捕捞而使该行业饱受争议。目前,90-95%的海水观赏鱼是由野生捕捞而来,在已知的数千种珊瑚礁鱼类中,有一半以上是在缺乏监测和没有监测的情况下进行贸易的,自然资源面临严重威胁。观赏性水产行业和消费者有责任确保野生捕获物种的可持续发展,海水观赏鱼的养殖被认为是一种保护野生资源的有效手段,但仍有许多技术问题阻碍了其发展。文章结合相关数据和文献,概述了国际海水观赏鱼产业现状及最新研究进展,讨论了海水观赏鱼产业中存在的问题,并提出了一些可行的解决方案,旨在为中国海水观赏鱼产业发展提供借鉴和参考。
  • 图 1  2012—2017年东南亚国家海水观赏鱼出口总额

    Figure 1.  Total export value of marine ornamental fish in Southeast Asian countries from 2012 to 2017

    图 2  2012—2017年全球主要海水观赏鱼进口国/地区进口总额

    Figure 2.  Total import value of major marine ornamental fish importing countries / regions in the world from 2012 to 2017

    图 3  2012—2017年中国 (不包括香港和澳门)海水观赏鱼进口总额与总量

    Figure 3.  Total import value and volume of marine ornamental fish in China (Excluding Hong Kong and Macau) from 2012 to 2017

    图 4  出口海水观赏鱼高死亡率的原因 (从捕获到买家的所有流程)

    Figure 4.  Reasons for high mortality of exported marine ornamental fish (All processes from catch to consumer)

    图 5  2015—2019年海水观赏鱼人工养殖物种总数及市场供应情况

    Figure 5.  Total number of cultive-bred marine ornamental fish species and market supply from 2015 to 2019

    表 1  全球十大海洋观赏鱼交易品种

    Table 1.  Top ten traded species of marine ornamental fish in the world

    科属
    Family
    俗名
    Common name
    IUCN红色名录状况
    IUCN Red List Status
    主要分布区域
    Main distribution area
    雀鲷科 Pomacentridae
    豆娘鱼属 Abudefduf spp.
    波浪雀鲷 Chrysiptera biocellata双斑豆娘鱼未评估印度洋-太平洋
    蓝刻齿雀鲷 Chrysiptera cyanea蓝魔未评估 印度洋-西太平洋
    红海双带小丑 Amphiprion bicinctus二带双锯鱼无危西印度洋
    白条双锯鱼 Amphiprion frenatus番茄小丑无危西太平洋
    眼斑双锯鱼 Amphiprion ocellaris眼斑海葵鱼无危西太平洋
    黑双带小丑鱼 Amphiprion sebae金武士未评估印度洋
    刺尾鲷科 Acanthuridae
    黄尾副刺尾鱼 Paracanthurus hepatus蓝吊无危印度洋-太平洋
    隆头鱼科 Labridae
    裂唇鱼 Labroides dimidiatus医生鱼无危印度洋-太平洋
    蝴蝶鱼科 Chaetodontidae
    马夫鱼 Heniochus acuminatus长鳍关刀无危印度洋-太平洋
    注:国际自然保护联盟 (IUCN) 的现状无危;数据缺乏;未评估;近危;易危;数据来源于全球海洋水族馆数据库 (Global Marine Aquarium Database, CMAD) Note: IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Red List Status: Least concern (LC); Data deficient (DD); Not evaluated (NE); Near threatened (NT); Vulnerable (VU). The data come from the Global Marine Aquarium Database (CMAD).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  目前中国具有贸易潜力的海水观赏鱼类品种

    Table 2.  Marine ornamental fish species with trade potential in China

    科属
    Family
    物种数量
    Number of species
    IUCN红色名录状态 IUCN Red List Status /%
    无危
    LC
    未评估
    NE
    近危
    NT
    数据缺乏
    DD
    易危
    VU
    刺尾鱼科 Acanthuridae 14 93 7
    躄鱼科 Antennariidae 4 75 25
    鳞鲀科 Balistidae 9 11 89
    鳚科 Blenniidae 6 100
    鲹科 Carangidae 2 100
    玻甲鱼科 Centriscidae 2 50 50
    蝴蝶鱼科 Chaetodontidae 31 100
    鱼翁科 Cirrhitidae 4 100
    二齿鲀科 Diodontidae 3 67 33
    塘鳢科 Eleotridae 2 100
    鰕鯱鱼科 Gobiidae 21 57 43
    金鳞鱼科 Holocentridae 4 100
    隆头鱼科 Labridae 51 98 2
    笛鲷科 Lutjanidae 6 100
    弱棘鱼科 Microdesmidae 2 50 50
    单棘鲀科 Monacanthidae 5 80 20
    鯙科 Muraenidae 4 100
    须鲷科 Mullidae 8 87 13
    金线鱼科 Nemipteridae 2 100
    箱鲀科 Ostraciidae 3 100
    拟鲈科 Pinguipedidae 3 33 67
    盖刺鱼科 Pomacanthidae 37 59 41
    大眼鲷科 Priacanthidae 2 100
    拟雀鲷科 Pseudochromidae 3 67 33
    鹦嘴鱼科 Scaridae 11 91 9
    石首鱼科 Sciaenidae 2 100
    鲉科 Scorpaenidae 6 100
    鮨科 Serranidae 3 100
    蓝子鱼科 Siganidae 5 100
    海龙科 Syngnathidae 3 33 67
    四齿鲀科 Tetraodontidae 5 100
    鰧科 Uranoscopidae 2 50 50
    其他 Other 30 57 33 7 3
    总计 (物种总数百分比) Total (Total species)/% 295 (100.0) 230 (78.0) 56 (19.0) 2 (0.7) 3 (1.0) 4 (1.3)
    注:数据来源于世界鱼类数据库 Note: The data come from the World Fish Database.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-28
  • 录用日期:  2020-09-14

国内外海水观赏鱼产业与研究现状

    作者简介:苏志星 (1991—),男,硕士,助理研究员,从事海水观赏鱼类繁育和养殖生态学研究。E-mail: zxsu1991@hotmail.com
    通讯作者: 岳彦峰, 92431429@qq.com
  • 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所/农业农村部东海与远洋渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200090

摘要: 海水观赏鱼贸易是海洋水族馆贸易行业的重要部分,是一项价值十几亿美元的产业,每年交易量达数百万尾,且需求量还在逐年上升,但由于严重依赖野生资源捕捞而使该行业饱受争议。目前,90-95%的海水观赏鱼是由野生捕捞而来,在已知的数千种珊瑚礁鱼类中,有一半以上是在缺乏监测和没有监测的情况下进行贸易的,自然资源面临严重威胁。观赏性水产行业和消费者有责任确保野生捕获物种的可持续发展,海水观赏鱼的养殖被认为是一种保护野生资源的有效手段,但仍有许多技术问题阻碍了其发展。文章结合相关数据和文献,概述了国际海水观赏鱼产业现状及最新研究进展,讨论了海水观赏鱼产业中存在的问题,并提出了一些可行的解决方案,旨在为中国海水观赏鱼产业发展提供借鉴和参考。

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